Category Archives: TRIAL OF JESUS

Jesus is betrayed with a kiss. Soldiers arrest him and take him to the high priest. He is tried by the Sanhedrin and then led to Pontius Pilate. The fate of Jesus was decided by a handful of officials.

Trial Of Jesus – Fate Decided By A Handful Of Characters

The Trial Of Jesus Was Presided Over By Annas, Joseph Caiaphas The High Priest Of Jerusalem And Later By Pontius Pilate

Joseph Caiaphas

According to Biblical accounts, Caiaphas sent Jesus to Pilate for his execution. As high priest and chief religious authority in the land, Caiaphas had many important responsibilities, including controlling the Temple treasury, managing the Temple police and other personnel, performing religious rituals, and – central to the passion story – serving as president of the Sanhedrin, the Jewish council and court that reportedly considered the case of Jesus.

The high priest had another, more controversial function in first-century Jerusalem: serving as a sort of liaison between Roman authority and the Jewish population. High priests, drawn from the Sadducean aristocracy, received their appointment from Rome since the time of Herod the Great, and Rome looked to high priests to keep the Jewish populace in control. High priests were also expected to arrest and hand over to the Romans, Jews they considered to be agitators.

Annas and Caiaphas

Although not much is known about Caiaphas because of his long tenure as high priest – from 18 to 36 C.E – it can be reasonably concluded that he must have had a good working relationship with the Roman authorities. Of his total tenure as high priest Caiaphas served for ten years when Pontius Pilate was the Roman prefect. In all likelihood the two seemed to have had a close relationship. It is also reasonable to presume that Caiaphas and Pilate had a fixed understanding about how to deal with rebellious persons such as Jesus.

Caiaphas’s motives for turning over Jesus to Pilate are suspect. Some historians think that he had no other alternative. Others however are of the opinion that Caiaphas was convinced that unless Jesus was brought under control or probably even eliminated that he would possibly upset the relationship that the high priest had with the Romans and that could in turn lead to Roman intolerance of Jewish institutions and traditions.

Because of the balance that high priests had to maintain in their relationships with the Jews and the Romans they were both respected and reviled by the Jewish population. Jews respected their high priest for the highest religious role they played and as the head of the Sanhedrin. However they were despised for the close relationship they were required to maintain with the Romans. Some high priests were even suspected to have taken bribes from the Romans for favors rendered (1).

Caiaphas lived in Jerusalem’s Upper City just south of the present Jaffa Gate, which was occupied by the city’s rich and powerful. In this way he differed from the other high priests. Judging by his lifestyle and the way in which he carried out his functions it can be reasonably guessed that his house was built around a huge courtyard. The gate facing the street must have led to the large courtyard where soldiers assembled and sometimes lit a fire. It is also likely that the house was part of a complex where other families also lived. It is this that leads one to conclude that Caiaphas and Annas lived in the same complex (2).

Caiaphas’ house itself must have been a large villa, being the official residence of the high priest. Since Jesus was first taken to the residence of Annas first, before being taken to the residence of the high priest, it is further reason to believe that the two lived in the same complex. Caiaphas’ house would presumably have been an extensive “villa,” the official residence of the high priest and his family. This is also proof that Annas still wielded a lot of power and was in fact the unofficial high priest.

Matthew 26:57–68 states that the Sanhedrin had gathered where Caiaphas the High Priest was located. One can infer from this that the meeting of the Sanhedrin was at the home of Caiaphas (3).

Annas

The trial of Jesus was first presided over by Annas. Although Annas was not the high priest during the trial of Jesus, he was the high priest from A.D. 6 to 15. Even though he was removed from office by the Romans Annas was still a powerful man merely because he was a Sadducee and the father-in-law of the then high priest Caiaphas. Annas was eventually succeeded by five of his sons as high priests.

In the Gospel of John Annas questioned Jesus about his disciples, and his teaching before Jesus was sent to Caiaphas.

Pontius Pilate

Pontius Pilate was the Roman prefect (governor) of Judea, a sub-province of Syria. It was he who ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

As prefect, Pilate had multifarious responsibilities. He commanded Roman military legions, sanctioned construction works, organized the collection of imperial taxes, and adjudicated on civil and criminal cases.

During his ten-year term as prefect, Pilate had several disagreements with his Jewish subjects. According to Jewish historian Josephus, Pilate’s act of bringing effigies of Caesar into the holy city of Jerusalem “by night and under cover” annoyed Jews who considered the effigies idolatrous. Jews went to Caesarea which was Pilate’s base and protested. Even though Pilate threatened them of dire consequences, the protesting Jews showed that they preferred martyrdom to accepting Pilate’s idolatrous act. Seeing their conviction, he relented. On another occasion, according to Josephus, Pilate angered his Jewish subjects when he diverted Temple funds to construct an aqueduct. Based on past experience, it was expected that the trial of Jesus would be another cause for Jewish unrest in Jerusalem.

Not only did Pilate not have adequate concern for Jewish sentiments, according to Philo writing in CE 41, he was also said to be cruel and corrupt. Philo recorded that Pilate’s tenure was fraught with “briberies, insults, robberies, outrages, wanton injustices, constantly repeated executions without trial, and ceaseless and grievous cruelty.” Although Philo may have been a little imaginative in his accusations there is nothing to say that he was anything but what was said about him by Philo, maybe to a lesser degree.

While it is known that Pilate spent most of his time in the coastal town of Caesarea, he however came to Jerusalem for significant Jewish festivals. When he visited Jerusalem it is said that he stayed in the praetorium which could have been either the palace of Herod the Great or a fortress that was located near the northwest corner of the Temple Mount (4).

According to the accounts of the followers of Jesus, Pilate did not play a decisive role in the trial of Jesus. He was not the one that decided that Jesus should be given the death penalty by crucifixion. And even if he did it must have been a reluctant one under duress. Some scholars say that early Christians played down the role of Pilate in the trial and execution of Jesus in order not to alienate Roman audiences. It must be noted that Jesus was given the most horrible punishment possible even though the Roman prefect had a choice of options such as flogging, handing the matter back to the Sanhedrin, or to refer the case to Herod Antipas, ruler of Galilee.

Pilate was aware that previous messianic claims had led to civil unrest. It is therefore reasonable to suppose that he would have willingly acceded to the request of the Temple priests to hand down the severest punishment to Jesus. Jesus was a potential threat to the relative peace that prevailed then. He had stated publicly that he is the “King of the Jews.” This was undoubtedly a threat and Pilate must have felt it expedient to remove this threat. It must be noted that execution by crucifixion is a Roman form of capital punishment and therefore Jesus was deemed to have violated Roman law and not Jewish law.

It does not seem that Pilate’s troubles with the Jews ended with the crucifixion of Jesus. It would appear that his problems continued till he was removed from office in 36 CE by the Syrian governor Vitellius. Subsequently Pilate was exiled to Vienne in France (5).

Although Pilate was responsible for the final act of his conviction Jesus blames him to a lesser extent, putting the blame squarely on the shoulders of the high priest. John 19:11 records Jesus as saying “You would have no authority over me, unless it had been given you from above; for this reason he who delivered me to you has the greater sin.” Some have interpreted this to mean that Jesus was blaming the Jews as a whole. However, it is clear that Jesus blamed the chief priest as he referred “to a singular person as “he” or “the one” who was responsible.” (6)

Different groups of scientists have fixed the year of the trial of Jesus as CE 33.
While we will never know for certain how willing Pilate was to condemn Jesus to death there is a single sentence by Matthew relating to Pilate’s wife Claudia Procula. The lady is supposed to have written the following to her husband while Pilate was judging Jesus, “Have nothing to do with that innocent man, because in a dream last night, I suffered much on account of him.”

Pontius Pilate's wife
Pilate’s wife Claudia Procula

Other early Christian writers have also referred to the sympathy that Pilate’s wife had for Jesus. “In the 3rd century, Origen suggested in his Homilies on Matthew that the wife of Pilate had become a Christian, or at least that God sent her the dream mentioned by Matthew so that she would convert.”

“Pilate’s wife is mentioned in the apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemus (probably written around the middle of the 4th century), which gives a more elaborate version of the episode of the dream than Matthew.”

“Procula is recognized as a saint in two churches within the Eastern Christian tradition: the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, she is celebrated on 27 October. The Ethiopian Orthodox Church celebrates Pilate and Procula together on 25 June.” (7)

Joseph of Arimathea

Joseph of Arimathea is said to have lived for an unknown period of time in Arimathea, also called Arimathaim by the Septuagint, and referred to as Amartha by the Historian Josephus. That is the reason for his name. The ancient town of Arimathea is the present day Ramallah which is eight miles North of Jerusalem. Joseph of Arimathea is believed to have been a wealthy man with tin mines in Cornwall, England. Because of his business he was said to have been acquainted with British kings Beli, Lud, Llyr and Arviragus (8). Joseph of Arimathea was also referred to as Joseph de Marmore since he lived in Marmorica in Egypt before he shifted residence to Arimathea.

According to the Talmud, Joseph of Arimathea is said to be the uncle of Mary the mother of Jesus, which made him Jesus’ great uncle and presumably an old man. Much of what is said about Joseph of Arimathea is not verifiable except that he was a wealthy man. Some say that he even took Jesus on some of his business trips to England, India, and South America.

Although Joseph of Arimathea was not one of the 12 apostles of Jesus, he was his disciple – albeit a secret one – and an important person of that time. He was also considered significant enough to early Christianity that he should have been mentioned in all the four Gospels – (Matthew: 27:57-60; Mark 15:43-46; Luke 23:50-55; John 19:38-42). He is also mentioned in Jewish and Christian books called the Apocrypha or Pseudepigrapha (which include the Book of Jubilees, the Psalms of Solomon, the Fourth Book of Maccabees, the Book of Enoch, the Fourth Book of Ezra and the Apocalypse of Baruch) which are not included in some versions of the bible. Joseph of Arimathea was a respected Jewish councilor and a member of the Sanhedrin. However he was not one of the members that wanted the death penalty for Jesus, it is generally presumed that Joseph of Arimathea was not one of those who voted to condemn Jesus. Luke (23:50) states that Joseph of Arimathea was a good and just man. And Luke 23:50 says that he was not one of the members of the Sanhedrin who condemned Jesus.

Even though he wanted to keep his affection for Jesus a secret, when the need arose, he put caution aside and went to Pilate to request for the body of Jesus. Joseph of Arimathea, according to some sources was a close friend of Pilate and is said to have paid him a huge bribe to obtain permission to bury the body of Jesus. Although Pilate acceded to his request, not being a family member of Jesus, he earned the displeasure of both the Romans and Jews and eventually spent time in Jail for his actions.

Joseph of Arimathea must have known the consequences of his actions. It would become apparent that he was a disciple of Jesus and as a result he would not only lose his reputation but also his social standing. It was also likely that he may not be able to continue his metals business in this part of the world (9).

Other sources claim that Joseph of Arimathea accompanied the apostle Phillip, Mary Magdalene, Lazarus, and others sometime during A.D. 37 to A.D. 63. After the others had gone in different directions Joseph of Arimathea sailed around the southern tip of England with the intention of meeting old business acquaintances. When he ran aground at Glastonbury, he is said to have gone to the countryside where he built a church. There is also another claim that Joseph of Arimathea hid the cup in which he had collected the blood and sweat of Jesus at the bottom of a deep well referred to as ‘Chalice Well’ or the ‘Blood Well.’ It is said that about 25000 gallons of red-tinted water pass through the well everyday. The explanation for the red-tint is said to be the high iron content in the well’s water.

Although Jerusalem was not the hometown of Jesus, the fact that he was buried in the tomb of a local wealthy man shows that he enjoyed the status of a charismatic leader who was respected even outside the inner circle of his disciples. Joseph of Arimathea is himself said to be a “rich man” according to Matthew 27:57 and a man of some standing as otherwise he would not have been granted an audience with Pilate nor would not have received permission to bury Jesus in spite of the fact that he was not related to Jesus who was considered a crucified criminal (10).

References:
(1) The Trial of Jesus: Key Figures. (n.d.). Retrieved 2011, from http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/jesus/jesuskeyfigures.html

(2) The Trial of Jesus: Key Figures. (n.d.). Retrieved 2011, from http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/jesus/jesuskeyfigures.html

(3) Sanhedrin trial of Jesus. (2012). Retrieved (2011), from http://www.enotes.com/topic/Sanhedrin_trial_of_Jesus

(4) The Trial of Jesus: Key Figures. (n.d.). Retrieved 2011, from http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/jesus/jesuskeyfigures.html
(5) The Trial of Jesus: Key Figures. (n.d.). Retrieved 2011, from http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/jesus/jesuskeyfigures.html

(6) Sanhedrin trial of Jesus. (2012). Retrieved 2012, from http://www.enotes.com/topic/Sanhedrin_trial_of_Jesus

(7) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontius_Pilate’s_wife

(8) Joseph of Arimathea. (2002). Retrieved 2011, from http://www.biblefacts.org/church/j_arimathea.htm

(9) The Amazing Burial of Jesus, Part 1, Matthew 27:57-61. (2012). Retrieved 2012, from http://www.gty.org/resources/print/study-guide-chapter/2399

(10) Gibson, Shimon. (2009) The Final Days of Jesus, The Archaeological Evidence, Harper Collins Publishers Inc. New York

Picture Credits:

(Fig 1) Annas and Caiaphas https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brooklyn_Museum_-_Annas_and_Caiaphas_%28Anne_et_Ca%C3%AFphe%29_-_James_Tissot.jpg

(Fig 2) Pontius Pilate’s wife Claudia Procula https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pontius_Pilate’s_wife.jpg

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Jesus Is Betrayed With A Kiss

There are several interpretations relating to the Trial of Jesus. The key here is to sift through the information available and try to figure what actually happened.

Late one Thursday night as Jesus prayed in the Garden of Gethsemane the silence of the night was disturbed by the sound of marching soldiers. When Jesus opened his eyes he could see soldiers of the high priest Joseph Caiaphas approach him. Leading the soldiers was one of Jesus’ apostles Judas Iscariot.

Location Of The Garden Of Gethsemane

Most people agree about the general location of the Garden of Gethsemane. However its exact location cannot be established with certainty. All the same Garden of Gethsemane is said to be located near the present day Greek and Roman churches situated on the lower slope of the Mount of Olives, more or less opposite to the St. Stephen’s Gate on the eastern side of the city. (1)

Garden of Gethsemane1

The Mount of Olives which lies across the Kidron Valley is made up of a row of three hills whose average height is about 2,700 feet. The drop to the Dead Sea from the Mount of Olives some twenty-five miles to the east, is about 4,200 feet. As a consequence of this great difference in altitudes, the Dead Sea and the mountains of Moab that lie beyond are clearly observable from the Mount of Olives.

The three hills that comprise the Mount of Olives are, from the north, Mount Scopus on which were located the houses of priests during the time of Saul, Mount Olivet and the Mount of Offense, or the Mount of Scandal where it is said that King Solomon built houses for his pagan wives.

Mount of Olives2

The central portion of the Mount of Olives was the desired resting-place for Galileans who came to Jerusalem for the feasts. It was for this reason that this section of the hill was called “The Men of Galilee.” It is said that this is where Jesus and His disciples often came to rest and to meditate and discuss the events relating to his ministry that were unfolding. (Luke 21:37; John 8:1; Luke 22:39). (2)

Judas walked up to Jesus and kissed him. That was the signal that was agreed between him and the soldiers of the high priest for identifying Jesus.

“You betray me with a kiss?” Jesus asked without any trace of surprise.
Judas Iscariot just hung his head in silence, probably feeling guilty already.

Judas Betrays Jesus3

The Soldiers Of The High Priest Took Custody Of Jesus

The soldiers of the high priest took custody of Jesus and began to lead him away. Just then one of the disciples drew a sword and cut off the ear of the soldier nearest to him. Jesus told the disciples to remain calm and is said to have healed the soldier whose ear had just been severed.
In an instant the courage of the disciples gave way to fear and they all fled with the exception of one: Jesus’ disciple Peter. Quickly the soldiers of the Jews led Jesus to Annas who was the father-in-law of Joseph Caiaphas, the high priest.

Taking of Christ by Caravaggio4

The narratives in the Gospels about the execution of Jesus are consistent with what is known about the crucifixion. Not only this, the whole judicial procedure, from the very confrontation between Jesus and the ruling priests and other spiritual authorities of the temple (Mark 11:15–12:44), his capture (14:43–50), interrogation (14:53–65), his finally being handed over to the Roman governor (15:1–5), and the calls for his death (15:13–14) are all consistent with the tradition of that time. (3)

Jesus is taken to Annas

In spite of the fact that Annas was not the high priest, it was evident that he wielded a lot of power. Not only was he the high priest from 6 to 15 C.E (till he was removed from that position by Valerius Gratus), he was also the head of the family from which most of the high priests of the first century C.E. were selected. It is quite probable that Annas every now and then sat by the side of his son-in-law Joseph Caiaphas in the Sanhedrin to help him to resolve intricate trials like the trial of Jesus. And in all likelihood Annas did this at the request of Joseph Caiaphas. It is quite probable that it was he who really exercised the powers of the high priest.

According to some accounts of the Trial of Jesus, since the bazaars of Annas were situated on the Mount of Olives it is quite probable that his house was also situated there and that it was in his house that the Sanhedrin met.

When Jesus was first taken to Annas, he questioned Jesus for almost an hour. Information of this questioning is mentioned in the Bible. John 18:19-24.

Annas Questions The Teachings Of Jesus

Annas questioned Jesus about his teachings and his followers. But Jesus was uncooperative and refused to answer Annas’ questions. Instead all that Jesus said was that there was nothing secretive about his teachings and that he always taught in public places. He asked Annas to check with witnesses if there was anything objectionable in what he taught.

“I have spoken openly to the world; I have always taught in synagogues and in the temple, where all Jews come together; I have said nothing secretly. Why do you ask me? Ask those who have heard me, what I said to them; they know what I said.” Jesus is supposed to have answered.

Christ is questioned by the high priest5

During this questioning John writes that an official who stood near Jesus struck him, probably for his apparent insolence. John also states that when this happened Jesus turned to this man and said “If I have done something wrong, say so. But if not, why did you hit me?” (John 18:23). (4)

Trial of Jesus by Annas was a mere sham. He knew he did not have the authority to take any formal action against Jesus. He probably conducted this charade of a trial to give his son-in-law Caiaphas time to convene the Sanhedrin. According to John when Jesus did not respond to the questioning of Annas, he sent Jesus to Caiaphas. However it is quite likely that this was one of the instances when Annas sat at the side of Caiaphas as this was a matter that has significant bearing on the future of high priesthood.

Then those who had seized Jesus led him to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders had gathered.

The Sanhedrin

According to gospel accounts, Jesus was brought before the Jerusalem Sanhedrin, presided over by high priest Joseph Caiaphas.

The word Sanhedrin is derived from the Greek that literally translates to “sitting together”. The term was used to refer to the Jewish council. The Sanhedrin is the Jewish judicial as well as an administrative body. The Sanhedrin was made up of local big-wigs that included members of the high-priestly family, religious authorities, and lay elders. It is quite likely that it functioned under some sort of Roman supervision – especially Sanhedrin functions such as taxing, law enforcement, and general administrative work. (8)

It was generally understood that the Sanhedrin was dominated primarily by Sadducees drawn from the ruling elites. (9)

Trial By The Sanhedrin

During the trial by the Sanhedrin, the high priest is supposed to have said to Jesus “I adjure you by the living God, tell us if you are the Christ, the Son of God.”

Jesus replied to him saying “You have said so. But I tell you, hereafter you will see the Son of man seated at the right hand of Power, and coming on the clouds of heaven.”

Then according to Mark 14:63-64 “Tearing his clothes, the high priest said, ‘What further need do we have of witnesses? You have heard the blasphemy; how does it seem to you?’ And they all condemned him to be deserving of death.” (10)

Another reason that the Temple priests sought the death penalty was because of Jesus’ claim that he could forgive sins. This according to the priests was the prerogative of God and that Jesus was trying to usurp the powers of God and in other words claiming to be God himself. Jesus is also supposed to have said that often sinners would be given a place in heaven even before the righteous. This was unthinkable to the Jews and amounted to blasphemy. (11)

Trial of Jesus was blatantly political. If the Temple priests were to retain their prestigious positions they had to safeguard the cordial relations with the Romans. Jesus’ claim of being able to destroy the Temple, reinterpreting Jewish religious laws and his claim to be the king of the Jews were all considered be to acts of heresy by the Temple priests. (12)

The Greek language is such that the word “Christ” could be interpreted to simply mean an anointed person and a son of God or it could mean Christ the son of God. The two interpretations are totally different and with completely dissimilar implications. The former interpretation is almost inconsequential in that it simply means that Jesus was an anointed person and a religious leader. Such persons are commonly referred to as sons of God – meaning that they were very religious. Since Jesus was anointed at Bethany because a woman poured expensive perfumed oil on him. However this is not the interpretation that the Sanhedrin wanted as this was an innocuous understanding. They wanted the far more serious interpretation – that Jesus was claiming to be the son of God – as this would amount to blasphemy.

The Son of Man would be seen sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven.

According to Synoptic Gospels Jesus’ claim is that the Son of Man would “be seen sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven.” Christians interpret this as meaning the second coming of Jesus in accordance with Daniel’s prophecy regarding the Son of Man (Daniel 7:13). The Gnostics however interpret it as the enlightenment that everyone will attain and as the son of man would “spiritually escape the earthly realm and rejoin the world of the monad (mighty one).” (13)

The Synoptic Gospels say that these responses of Jesus were enough for the Sanhedrin to conclude that he was guilty of blasphemy. (14)

The Trial Of Jesus Was Both A Farce And Illegal

The trial of Jesus was both a farce and illegal. It was a farce because his punishment was determined even before the trial. The mood of the Sanhedrin is reflected in the statement “Here is this man performing many miraculous signs. If we let him go on like this, everyone will believe in him, and then the Romans will come and take away both our place and our nation.” John 11:48. Caiaphas’ response to this was “You know nothing at all! You do not realize that it is better for you that one man die for the people than that the whole nation perish.” (15)

According to Mark and Matthew the trial of Jesus conducted at night was illegal since the Mishnah Sanhedrin 4.1 prohibited trials involving capital punishment at night. (16)

Both the Synoptic Gospels and the Gospel of John state that early in the morning the Sanhedrin reached its conclusion, and Jesus was bound and taken to the Roman Governor Pontius Pilate. (17)

Then they led Jesus from the house of Caiaphas to the praetorium. It was early. They themselves did not enter the praetorium, for fear of being defiled, but instead they just wanted to eat the Passover.

According to the Gospel of John Jesus was handed over to Pilate by the Sanhedrin. When Pilate objected telling the members of the Sanhedrin to try Jesus according to Jewish laws and hand him a punishment in accordance to those laws. But the Sanhedrin members told Pilate that they were not empowered to sentence anyone to death. This is however incorrect as the Sanhedrin had the requisite powers to impose the death penalty. According to the Mishnah that was in force until about 200 CE the Sanhedrin had the powers to impose death penalty under certain circumstances. The Mishnah is “The Jewish commentary on the Torah with all of the interpretations of the various laws for different situations. It is comprised of the oral commentary on the Torah that was in effect from a few hundred years before Christ until it was written down in 200 AD.” (18)

For instance the Mishnah Sanhedrin 6.1 to 6.4 stipulates the procedures for stoning. Although the oral commentaries on the Torah were written in 200 CE there is no proof that they were not applicable in 30 CE. Besides at most times the Romans preferred to keep out of tricky situations and preferred to leave it to the Jewish authorities to deal with religious crimes. (19)

References:
(1) Jerusalem – location profile. (n.d.). Retrieved 2011, from http://www.ancientsandals.com/overviews/temple.htm

(2) Jerusalem – location profile. (n.d.). Retrieved 2011, from http://www.ancientsandals.com/overviews/temple.htm

(3) Evans, Craig A. (n.d.). Jewish Burial Traditions and the Resurrection of Jesus. Retrieved 2011, from http://www.craigaevans.com/Burial_Traditions.pdf

(4) Jesus Is Questioned by the High Priest. (2006). Retrieved 2011, from http://www.dailybible.com/cev/09/cev0917t.htm

(8) The Sanhedrin. (n.d.). Retrieved 2011 from http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/jesus/sanhedrin.html

(9) A place to discuss the works of Peter F Hamilton. (n.d.). Retrieved 2011, from http://www.theunisphere.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=483&start=150

(10) Schwager, Don. (2002). Gospel of Matthew: a commentary & meditation. Retrieved 2011, from http://www.rc.net/wcc/readings/matt2657.htm

(11) Aiuto, Russell. (n.d.). The Trial of Jesus Christ and The Last Supper. Retrieved 2011, from http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/notorious_murders/classics/jesus_trial/4.html

(12) Aiuto, Russell. (n.d.). The Trial of Jesus Christ and The Last Supper . Retrieved 2011, from http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/notorious_murders/classics/jesus_trial/4.html

(13) Sanhedrin trial of Jesus. (n.d.). Retrieved 2011, from http://www.enotes.com/topic/Sanhedrin_trial_of_Jesus

(14) Sanhedrin trial of Jesus. (n.d.). Retrieved 2011, from http://www.enotes.com/topic/Sanhedrin_trial_of_Jesus

(15) Who Killed Jesus? (n.d.). Retrieved 2011, from http://www.hearnow.org/wkj.html

(16) The Sanhedrin. (n.d.). Retrieved 2011, from http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/jesus/sanhedrin.html

(17) Sanhedrin trial of Jesus. (n.d.). Retrieved 2011, from http://www.enotes.com/topic/Sanhedrin_trial_of_Jesus

(18) Tverberg, Lois. (n.d.). Glossary of Hebraic & Jewish Terminology. Retrieved 2011, from http://www.egrc.net/pages/glossary.html

(19) The Sanhedrin. (n.d.). Retrieved 2011, from http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/jesus/sanhedrin.html

Picture Credits:
1) Jesus praying in the Garden of Gethsemane
https://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&site=imghp&tbm=isch&source=hp&biw=1024&bih=635&q=Garden+Of+Gethsemane&oq=Garden+Of+Gethsemane&gs_l=img.12..0l10.3242.3242.0.7544.1.1.0.0.0.0.117.117.0j1.1.0….0…1ac.2.64.img..0.1.117.aDs-z4B2bd0#q=Garden+Of+Gethsemane&hl=en&tbm=isch&tbs=sur:fc&imgrc=8350tbPuw_T20M%3A

2) Mount of Olives where the garden of Gethsemane is said to be located
https://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&site=imghp&tbm=isch&source=hp&biw=1024&bih=635&q=Garden+Of+Gethsemane&oq=Garden+Of+Gethsemane&gs_l=img.12..0l10.3242.3242.0.7544.1.1.0.0.0.0.117.117.0j1.1.0….0…1ac.2.64.img..0.1.117.aDs-z4B2bd0#hl=en&tbs=sur:fc&tbm=isch&q=mount+of+olives&imgrc=4OPodBMM71X1zM%3A

3) Jesus is betrayed by Judas https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gustave_Dor%C3%A9_-_The_Holy_Bible_-_Plate_CXLI,_The_Judas_Kiss.jpg

4) Jesus is taken into custody by the soldiers of the high priest  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arrest_of_Jesus#/media/File:Caravaggio_-_Taking_of_Christ_-_Dublin_-_2.jpg

5) Trial of Jesus – Jesus is questioned by the high priest    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanhedrin_trial_of_Jesus#/media/File:Mattias_Stom,_Christ_before_Caiaphas.jpg